The Ineffectiveness of UNHCR in Handling the Myanmar Conflict

Main Article Content

Akbar Averroes Sabil
Surwandono Surwandono

Abstract

UNHCR has a history of success in managing humanitarian issues and ultimately contributing to the birth of a new consciousness to consciously end conflicts. However, in the context of the conflict in Myanmar, UNHCR, which has systematically conducted humanitarian interventions to build a new consciousness to end the conflict, has failed to manage the humanitarian interventions to build a new consciousness to end the conflict. This article will explain the factors of failure in ending the conflict in order to see how deep the value of peace consciousness of peace consciousness can influence decisions in the conflict. This article finds that the Myanmar government's lack of political awareness of a number of ratified humanitarian conventions has made UNHCR's humanitarian interventions hit and run, so that peace values do not grow into core values. UNHCR's failure to transform the Refugee Convention into a new value in the ASEAN normative structure has rendered double contingency ineffective.

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

Article Details

How to Cite
Sabil, A. A. and Surwandono, S. (2024) “The Ineffectiveness of UNHCR in Handling the Myanmar Conflict ”, Nation State: Journal of International Studies, 6(2), pp. 179-188. doi: 10.24076/nsjis.v6i2.1061.
Section
Article

References

Ashadi, W. (2022) "Kudeta Junta Militer Myanmar Terhadap Aung San Suu Kyi 2021", Dauliyah Journal of Islamic and International Affairs, 7(2), pp. 138, doi: https://doi.org/10.21111/dauliyah.v7i2.8503.

Ayoade Ahmad, A., Zulkanain Abdul Rahim, A., & Majid Hafiz Bin Mohamed, A. (2016) "The Refugee Crisis in Southeast Asia: The Malaysian Experience", International Journal of Novel Research in Humanity and Social Sciences, 3(6), pp. 80–90.

Bepler, S. (2018) "The Rohingya conflict: Genesis, current situation and geopolitical aspects", Pacific Geographies, 28(50), pp. 4–10. http://pacific-geographies.org/wp-content/uploads/2018/09/PG50_Bepler.pdf (Accessed: 5 June 2023).

Bowcott, O. (2019) "The Guardian" Aung San Suu Kyi tells court: Myanmar genocide claims ‘factually misleading (Online). Available at: https://www.theguardian.com/world/2019/dec/11/aung-san-suu-kyi-tells-icj-myanmar-genocide-claims-factually-misleading (Accessed: 5 June 2023).

Chowdhory, N., & Mohanty, B. (ed) (2020) Citizenship, Nationalism and Refugeehood of Rohingyas in Southern Asia. Singapore: Springer. doi: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-981-15-2168-3.

Huelss, H. (2017) "After decision-making: The operationalization of norms in International Relations", International Theory, 9(3), pp. 381–406, doi: https://doi.org/10.1017/S1752971917000069.

International Crisis Group. (2021) The Cost of the Coup: Myanmar Edges Toward State Collapse (Online). Available at: https://www.crisisgroup.org/asia/south-east-asia/myanmar/cost-coup-myanmar-edges-toward-state-collapse-0 (Accessed: 5 June 2023).

Kessler, O. (2016) "The contingency of constructivism: On norms, the social, and the third", Millennium: Journal of International Studies, 45(1), pp. 43–63, doi: https://doi.org/10.1177/0305829816655879.

Li, S., Liran, X., & Meiying, J. (2022) "The Demographic Characteristics of Rohingya Refugees on the Myanmar-Bangladesh Border and Its Impact on Regional Geopolitical Relations—Based on Analysis of Refugee Camps in Palong Khali District", Tropical Geography, 42(3), pp. 499–508, doi: https://doi.org/10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003449.

Ludfiani, A., Hara, A. E., & Sunarko, B. S. (2017) "Krisis Kemanusiaan dan Upaya Thailand Mengatasi Gelombang Pengungsi Rohingya", E-Sospol, 4(2), pp. 82–88.

Ma’arif, H. M. A., & Maksum, A. (2022) "The Role of UNHCR in the Stagnation of International Intervention towards Victims of the Coup Con?ict in Myanmar as an E?ort to Maintain Peace", Jurnal Global & Strategis, 16(2), pp. 307–328, doi: https://doi.org/10.20473/jgs.16.2.2022.307-328.

Manurung, H. (2021) "Myanmar Political Instability: A Threat to Southeast Asia Stability", Jurnal Asia Pacific Studies, 5(1), doi: https://doi.org/10.33541/japs.v5i1.2671.

Manurung, H. (2021) "Myanmar Unresolved Political Development: A Threat to ASEAN Unity and Democracy", European Journal of Science, Innovation and Technology, 1(2), pp. 1–15.

McConnachie, K. (2022) "Refugee Policy as Border Governance: Refugee return, peacebuilding, and Myanmar’s politics of transition”, Modern Asian Studies, 56(2), 661–690, doi: https://doi.org/10.1017/S0026749X20000189.

Mukherjee, K. (2019) "The ethnic minority question and rohingya crisis in contemporary Myanmar", Journal of Muslim Minority Affairs, 39(1), pp. 26–43. doi: https://doi.org/10.1080/13602004.2019.1575021.

Mutaqin, Z. Z. (2018) "The Rohingya Refugee Crisis and Human Rights: What Should asean Do?", Asia Pacific Journal on Human Rights and the Law, 19(1), pp. 1–26. doi: https://doi.org/10.1163/15718158-01901001.

OHCHR.org. (2020) Ratification Status for Myanmar (Online). Available at: https://tbinternet.ohchr.org/_layouts/15/TreatyBodyExternal/Treaty.aspx?CountryID=119&Lang=EN (Accessed: 28 June 2023).

Qader, M. A., Rasel PSC, M. M. R., & Rahman, M. R. M. (2022) "Far-stretching Strategy of Myanmar Junta to Forcefully Displace the Rohingya: Bangladesh, Regional and International Responses", International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science, 06(07), pp. 576–581, doi: https://doi.org/10.47772/ijriss.2022.6733.

Rishanti, F. A., Santoso, P., & Utama, A. P. (2022) "ASEAN’s Contributions to Attain Peace on The Dynamic of Rohingya Ethic Issue", International Journal of Management, Entrepreneurship, Social Science and Humanities, 5(1), pp. 25–33. doi: https://doi.org/10.31098/ijmesh.v5i1.1002.

Rosyidin, M. (2017) "Why collective identity matters: Constructivism and the absence of ASEAN’s role in the Rohingya crisis", Asia-Pacific Social Science Review, 17(1), pp. 52–65.

S. Sidhu, J., & Parnini, S. N. (2020) "International Responses to Human Rights Violations in Myanmar: The Case of the Rohingya", Journal of International Studies. doi: https://doi.org/10.32890/jis.7.2011.7920.

Sholeh, B. (2019) "Indonesia and ASEAN Responses on Rohingya Refugees", The Palgrave Handbook of Ethnicity, pp. 1891–1906. doi: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-981-13-2898-5_170.

Song, L. (2018) "Forced migration of ethnic Kachins from Myanmar to China: Law and politics behind China’s response", Asian and Pacific Migration Journal, 27(2), pp. 190–208. doi: https://doi.org/10.1177/0117196818766905.

South, A. (2020) "Myanmar’s “Rohingya” Conflict", Journal of Contemporary Asia, 50(1), pp. 168–170, doi: https://doi.org/10.1080/00472336.2018.1559340.

UNHCR. (2022) Sejarah UNHCR (Online). Available at: https://www.unhcr.org/id/sejarah-unhcr (Accessed: 7 June 2023).

UNHCR. (2023) What we do (Online). Available at: https://www.unhcr.org/what-we-do (Accessed: 7 June 2023).

Zahed, I. U. M. (2021) "The State against the Rohingya: Root Causes of the Expulsion of Rohingya from Myanmar", Politics, Religion and Ideology, 22(3–4), pp. 436–460. doi: https://doi.org/10.1080/21567689.2021.1995716.

Zahed, I. U. M., & Jenkins, B. (2022) Aung San Suu Kyi and ethnic cleansing: the dark side of ‘Myanmar way’ democracy", South East Asia Research, 30(2), pp. 202–218. doi: https://doi.org/10.1080/0967828X.2022.2086062.