Kontradiksi Demokrasi Liberal dan “Akhir Sejarah” Yang Tertunda

Main Article Content

Eva Novi Karina


Due to historical developments and the works of theorists such as Francis Fukuyama, predominant political-economic literature has claimed that the combination of a “free market economy” and “liberal democracy built on equal rights” results in the most developed form of human society. With economic and political liberalism, societies of Western Europe and North America “at the vanguard of civilization” considered have reached the endpoint of humankind’s ideological evolution hence Western liberal democracy has been perceived as the final form of human government. However, the current rising wave of right-wing populism along with the exercise of protectionist economic measures in the most developed democratic countries has shown that democracy has begun to malfunction. Depart from this point, this article aims to re-examine the relationship between free market and democracy, and analyses the real inequalities manifested in income and the ownership of the means of production, and the inequalities within capitals, and between capital and wage labor. It concludes that the logic of market mechanisms poses a threat to democracy, while the extension of democracy would inevitably limit the freedom of the market and curb capital accumulation.


Download data is not yet available.

Article Details

How to Cite
Karina, E. N. (2019) “Kontradiksi Demokrasi Liberal dan ‘Akhir Sejarah’ Yang Tertunda”, Nation State: Journal of International Studies, 2(1), pp. 88-104. doi: 10.24076/NSJIS.2019v2i1.148.


Acemoglu, D. and Robinson, J.A. (2006) Economic Origins of Dicatorship and Democracy. New York: Cambridge University Press.

Acemoglu, D. and Robinson, J.A. (2012) Why Nations Fail: The Origins of Power, Prosperity, and Poverty. New York: Crown Publishers.

Chen, S., and Ravallion, M. (2013) ‘More Relatively-Poor People in a Less Absolutely-Poor World’, Review of Income and Wealth, Vol. 59, Issue 1, pp. 1-28.

Domhoff, G. W. (2005) Who Rules America? The Triumph of the Corporate Rich. 7th edition. United States: McGraw-Hill Higher Education.

Domhoff, G. W. The Class-Domination Theory of Power (Online). Tersedia di: https://whorulesamerica.ucsc.edu/power/class_domination.html. (Diakses: 4 Februari 2019).

Eurostat. (2019) In-work at-risk-of-poverty rate by age and sex - EU-SILC Survey (Online). Tersedia di: http://appsso.eurostat.ec.europa.eu/nui/submitViewTableAction.do (Diakses: 2 February 2019).

Grinin, L, A. Korotayev, and A. Tausch. (2016) Economic Cycles, Crises and Global Periphery. Switzerland: Springer International Publishing.

ILO. (2018) ILO: Unemployment and Decent Work Deficits to Remain High in 2018 (Online). Tersedia di: https://www.ilo.org/global/about-the-ilo/newsroom/news/WCMS_615590/lang--en/index.htm (Diakses: 22 Januari 2019).

Kotz, D.M. (2009) ‘The Financial and Economic Crisis of 2008: A Systemic Crisis of Neoliberal Capitalism’, Review of Radical Political Economics, Vol. 41(3).

Lenin. (2002) How to Guarantee the Success of the Constituent Assembly (Online). Tersedia di: https://www.marxists.org/archive/lenin/works/1917/sep/28.htm. (Diakses: 5 Februari 2019).

North, D.C, J.J Wallis, and B.R Weingast. (2009) Violence and Social Orders: A Conceptual Framework for Interpreting Recorded Human History. New York: Cmbridge University Press.

ONS. (2017) People In Employment on a Zero-Hours Contract (Online). Tersedia di: https://www.ons.gov.uk/releases/peopleinemploymentonazerohourscontractmar2017 (Diakses: 31 January 2019).

Polimpung, H. Y. (2018) Ngomong-ngomong Apa itu Pekerja Prekariat (Online). Tersedia di: http://theconversation.com/ngomong-ngomong-apa-itu-pekerja-prekariat-83048 (Diakses: 8 January 2019).

Resnick, S. and Wolff, R. (2003) ‘Exploitation, Consumption and the Uniqueness of US Capitalism." Historical Materialism, Vol. 11(4).

Stiglitz, Joseph E. (2013) ‘Inequality is A Choice’. The New York Times (Online). Tersedia di: https://opinionator.blogs.nytimes.com/2013/10/13/inequality-is-a-choice/ (Diakses: 31 Januari 2019).

Stockhammer, E. (2013) ‘Why have wage shares fallen? A panel analysis of the determinants of functional income distribution’, Condition of Work and Employment Series, No.35, pp. 40-70. Geneva: International Labor Organization.

Sullivan, A. (2016) Democracy End When They Are too Democratic (Online). Tersedia di: http://nymag.com/intelligencer/2016/04/america-tyranny-donald-trump.html?gtm=bottom>m=top. (Diakses 31 Januari 2019).

Tharoor, I. (2017) The Man Who Declared The ‘End of History’ Fears for Democracy’s Future (Online). Tersedia di: https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/worldviews/wp/2017/02/09/the-man-who-declared-the-end-of-history-fears-for-democracys-future/?noredirect=on&utm_term=.d501864d9492 (Diakses: 31 Januray 2019).

TUC. (2015a) 15 per cent increase in people working more than 48 hours a week risks a return to ‘Burnout Britain’, warns TUC (Online). Tersedia di: https://www.tuc.org.uk/news/15-cent-increase-people-working-more-48-hours-week-risks-return-%E2%80%98burnout-britain%E2%80%99-warns-tuc. (Diakses: 23 Januari 2019).

TUC. (2015b) Workers Contribute £32bn to Uk Economy from Unpaid Overtime (Online). Tersedia di: February 27. Accessed January 23, 2019.

https://www.tuc.org.uk/news/workers-contribute-%C2%A332bn-uk-economy-unpaid-overtime (Diakses: 23 January 2019).

Tusk, D. (2016) Brexit Could Threaten Western Political Civilization, Says Eu's Tusk (Online). Tersedia di: https://www.reuters.com/article/us-britain-eu-tusk-idUSKCN0YZ0Q9 (Diakses: 20 Januari 2019).