Main Article Content
This article aims to examine Rwanda's foreign policy decision to join the British Commonwealth. Rwanda was former French colony and has historic association with Francophone countries. But the country decided to join the British Commonwealth in 2009. Using theory of foreign policy decision making, it argues that the shift of Rwanda’s foreign policy was caused by the political transition in Rwanda’s domestic politics, its economy condition in the post-genocide epoch as well as the international context which included Rwanda’s geographic position and the role of the United Kingdom in aiding Rwanda’s state-building in the aftermath of the genocide. This research uses qualitative method and uses secondary data such as, books, articles, journals, e-news, reports and other library sources.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.
The copyright of the received article shall be assigned to the Nation State: Journal of International Studies (NSIS) as the publisher of the journal under Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. The intended copyright includes the right to edit, reproduce and publish the article in various forms and media (including reprints), as well as translation.
Authors are permitted to disseminate published articles by sharing appropriate credit, provide a link to the license to this journal. Authors are allowed to use their articles for any legal purposes deemed necessary without written permission from the journal with an acknowledgment of initial publication to this journal.
Arieff, A., & Terrell, K. Z. (2018) Rwanda: In Brief. Congressional Research Service.
Ayittey, G. B. (2017) The Non-Sustainability of Rwanda’s Economic Miracle. Journal of Management and Sustainability, 7(2).
Bruguière, J.-L. (2006) Délivrance de mandats d’arrêt internationaux, Ordonnance de soit-communiqué. Paris: Tribunal de grande instance de Paris.
Cameron, H. (2012) British State Complicity In Genocide: Rwanda 1994. State Crime Journal, 1(1), 70-87. Retrieved from: https://www.jstor.org/stable/41917771
Camus, S. (2013) The French Defense and Foreign Policies: Rwanda Case Study.
CIA World Factbook. (2017) Rwanda. Retrieved from The World Factbook: https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/rw.html (Accessed: October 10, 2018).
Collier, P. (2008) The bottom billion: Why the poorest countries are failing and what can be done about it. Oxford University Press.
Commonwealth Human Rights Initiative. (2009) Report on Rwanda s Application for Membership of the Commonwealth: An assessment. Commonwealth Human Rights Initiative.
Coplin, W. D. (1983) Foreign Policy Decision-Making. Learning Research Inst for International.
Department for International Development. (2015) DFID RWANDA. Retrieved from: https://assets.publishing.service.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/630932/Rwanda.pdf
Destexhe, A. (1995) Rwanda and Genocide in the Twentieth Century. Pluto Press.
Gribbin, R. E. (2005) In the aftermath of genocide: The US role in Rwanda. iUniverse.
International Court of Justice. (2007) The Republic of Rwanda applies to the International Court of Justice. Hague: Press release No. 2007/11. Retrieved from https://www.icj-cij.org/files/press-releases/0/000-20070418-PRE-01-00-EN.pdf (Accessed: 16 November 2018).
Kimanuka, O. (2007) Rwanda: Country's Foreign Policy May Be Shaped By Domestic Considerations. Retrieved from: https://allafrica.com/stories/200703130598.html
Kinzer, S. (2008) A thousand hills " Rwandas Rebirth and the Man Who Dreamt about It. Hoboken, New Jersey: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
Kuperman, A. J. (2004) Provoking genocide: a revised history of the Rwandan Patriotic Front. Journal of Genocide Research, 6(1), 61-84.
Kuperus, C. (2016) Kuperus, C. C. C. France's Involvement in the Construction of the Rwandan Genocide. BS Thesis.
Lal, V. (2007) Rwanda and the Desperation of France. Economic and Political Weekly , 480-481.
Madsen, W. (Ed.). (1999) Genocide and covert operations in Africa, 1993-1999. Edwin Mellen Press, 50.
Mann, M. (2005) The Dark Side of Democracy: Explaining Ethnic Cleansing. Cambridge University Press.
Mbonyinshuti, J. d. (2018) La Francophonie: What opportunities does the body present for Rwandans? Retrieved from: https://www.newtimes.co.rw/news/la-francophonie-what-opportunities-does-body-present-rwandans (Accessed: November 13, 2018).
McCrummen, S. (2008, October 28). Rwandans Say Adieu to Français. Retrieved from: http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2008/10/27/AR2008102703165.html?noredirect=on (Accessed: October 17, 2018).
McKnight, S. (2015). The Rise and Fall of the Rwanda-Uganda Alliance (1981-1999). African Studies Quarterly, 15(2), 23.
Moncrieff, R. (2012). French Africa policy: Sarkozy's legacy, and prospects for a Hollande Presidency. South African Journal of International Affairs, 19(3), 359-380. Doi:10.1080/10220461.2012.741104
Mwambari, D., Muteru, A., Walsh, B., Bugingo, I., Munyaneza, T., & Olonisakin, F. (2017) "Trajectories of state building and peace building in Rwanda."
Nyirindekwe, J.-P. (1999) Le problemes de planification linguistiques au Rwanda [The problems of linguistic planning in Rwanda]. Butare: Universite Nationale du Rwanda.
Organisation Internationale de la Francophonie. (2013) Welcome to the Organisation Internationale de la Francophonie's Official Website. Retrieved from: https://www.francophonie.org/Welcome-to-the-International.html (Accessed: April 10, 2018).
Otunnu, O. (2017) An historical Analysis of the Invasion by the Rwanda Patriotic Army (RPA). In A. Suhrke, The Path of a Genocide (pp. 31-50). Routledge.
Pflanz, M. (2007, July 23) Rwanda in drive to join Commonwealth. Retrieved from: https://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/worldnews/1558285/Rwanda-in-drive-to-join-Commonwealth.html (Accessed: November 30, 2018).
Pflanz, M. (2009, November 29) Rwanda Joins the Commonwealth. Nairobi: The Telegraph. Retrieved from: https://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/worldnews/africaandindianocean/rwanda/6685316/Rwanda-joins-the-Commonwealth.html (Accessed: October 18, 2018).
Quilès, P. (1998) Rapport d’information sur les opérations militaires menées par la France, d'autres pays et l’oNu au Rwanda entre 1990 et 1994 par la Mission d’Information de la Commission de la Défense Nationale et des Forces Armées et de la Commission des A?aires Etrang. ASSEMBLÉE NATIONALE Assemblee Nationale. Retrieved from http://www.assemblee-nationale.fr/11/dossiers/rwanda/r1271.asp
Refin, R. (2015) Libérte, Egalité, and Fraternité: France, Rwanda, and the Road to Genocide. Honors Theses, 381. Retrieved from: htps://digitalworks.union.edu/theses/381
Sinclair, G. K. (2012) English in Rwanda: “Inevitability” meets obstacles on the ground. University of Toronto.
Sodipo, B., & Musiitwa, J. M. (2012) Regional Integration and the Future of Rwanda. In P. Noack, Rwanda fast forward: Social, economic, military and reconciliation prospects (p. Springer).
The New Times. (2015, May 18) Rwanda plays an important role in regional stability - German Envoy. Retrieved from: https://www.newtimes.co.rw/section/read/188900 (Accessed: November 30, 2018).
The New York Times. (2006) Rwanda breaks diplomatic relations with France - - International Herald Tribune. Retrieved from: https://www.nytimes.com/2006/11/24/news/24iht-rwanda.3660589.html (Accessed: November 16, 2018).
The State House of Uganda. (2012) The President: H. E. Yoweri K. Museveni. Retrieved from: http://www.statehouse.go.ug/people/h-e-yoweri-k-museveni (Accessed: November 29, 2018).
Totten, S., Bartrop, P. R., & Jacobs, S. L. (2008) Dictionary of Genocide (Vol. 1). ABC-CLIO.
Turner, B. (2006) International Organization of the Francophonie. In The Statesman’s Yearbook, 53-55.
Uchehara, K. (2014, February) France-Afrique Model: A Declining Relationship. Journal of Administrative Sciences, 12(23), 33-53.
USA Today. (2006) Rwanda Breaks Diplomatic Ties with France. Retrieved from: https://usatoday30.usatoday.com/news/world/2006-11-24-france-rwanda_x.htm (Accessed: November 16, 2018).
Verschave, F.-X. (2000) Noir Silence. Paris: Les Arènes.
Watson, C. (1992) War and waiting. Africa Report, 37(6), 51.
Waugh, C. M. (2013) Paul Kagame and Rwanda: Power, Genocide and the Rwandan Patriotic Front. McFarland.
Willis, A. (2014) Silent Accomplice: The Untold Story of France's Role in the Rwandan Genocide. I.B.Tauris.
Záho?ík, J. (2017) Ruanda-Urundi under Belgian Control: Demography, Labor Force, and migration. In J. Záho?ík, & L. Piknerová, Colonialism on the Margins of Africa (pp. 73-84). Routledge.