Bilateral Agreement of Indonesia - Japan for Low Carbon Growth Cooperation: An Analysis of the Effectiveness and the Compliance Level

Main Article Content

Hidayat Chusnul Chotimah
Puguh Toko Arisanto
Tiffany Setyo Pratiwi

Abstract

To reduce greenhouse gas emissions, in 2013 Indonesia and Japan agreed to establish bilateral cooperation in Joint Crediting Mechanism (JCM). JCM facilitated and encouraged Japanese institutions (private and state) to cooperate with Indonesian institutions in a form of investment in low-carbon development. This article seeks to analyze the effectiveness of JCM implementation between Indonesia and Japan by using international cooperation effectiveness approach to determine the legal form whether soft law or hard law. The results show that both Indonesia and Japan choose to use soft law in this negotiation which has several benefits. Soft law provides an opportunity for both countries to achieve their goals and it can be used as a tool for negotiation and compromise. This article will also analyze the level of compliance between the two countries through coercion, reciprocity, reputation, and domestic institutions approaches. Authors found that there is no coercion in the form of sanction in implementing JCM; there is a reciprocity allowing JCM to provide financial assistance, transfer of technology and human resource; Indonesia and Japan keep their promises to uphold their international commitments; and domestic institutions play a role in promoting compliance in the low carbon growth partnership between the two countries.

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

Article Details

How to Cite
Chotimah, H. C., Arisanto, P. T. and Pratiwi, T. S. (2020) “Bilateral Agreement of Indonesia - Japan for Low Carbon Growth Cooperation: An Analysis of the Effectiveness and the Compliance Level”, Nation State: Journal of International Studies, 3(2), pp. 98 - 113. doi: 10.24076/NSJIS.2020v3i2.228.
Section
Research Article

References

Abbott, Kenneth W., et. al (2000) The Concept of Legalization. The IO Foundation and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology.

Abbott, Kenneth W. & Snidal, Duncan. (2000) Hard and Soft Law in International Governance. International Organization, Vol. 54, No. 3.

Chotimah, H. C., & Winanti, P. S. (2018) The Politics of Green Capitalism: Formulating the Low Carbon Growth Partnership between Japan and Indonesia. KnE Social Sciences, 3(5), pp. 291-311.

Choudhury, B. (2018) Balancing Soft and Hard Law for Business and Human Rights. International and Comparative Law Quarterly, 67(4), pp. 961–986.

Demedts, V. (2018) The Future of International Competition Law Enforcement: An Assessment of the EU’s Cooperation Efforts. Boston: Brill.

Dewan Nasional Perubahan Iklim. (2013) Mari berdagang karbon: Pengantar pasar karbon untuk pengendalian perubahan iklim. [Carbon trading: introduction to carbon market for climate change control] [in Bahasa Indonesia]. Available at: http://jcm.ekon.go.id/en/uploads/files/Document%20JCM/Media/buku_carbon_isi.pdf. (Accessed: 27 December 2015).

Fox, Midori K. (2009) The Ethics of Japan’s Global Environmental Policy, Dissertation. Doctor of Philosophy in Asian Studies, School of Social Sciences, University of Adelaide.

Goldstein, Judith, et. al. (2000) Introduction: Legalization and World Politics (eds.). Cambridge: MIT Press.

Hasanah, L., & Puspitasari, V. (2019) Kerja Sama Indonesia-Jepang dalam Joint Credit Mechanism (JCM) pada Pembangunan Rendah Karbon di Indonesia. Padjadjaran Journal of International Relations, 1(2), pp. 142–155.

Husni, Z. (2017) Kerjasama Indonesia-Jepang Melalui Joint Crediting Mechanism dalam Green Sister City Surabaya-Kitakyushu. JOM FISIP, 4(2 Oktober), pp. 1–14.

Lune, H., & Berg, B. L. (2017) Methods for the Social Sciences Global Edition (Global edi). Essex, England: Pearson Education Limited.

Memorandum of Understanding. (2013) Bilateral Cooperation on the Joint Crediting Mechanism for the Low Carbon Growth Partnership between the Republic of Indonesia and Japan (Online). Available at: http://treaty.kemlu.go.id/uploads-pub/2634_JPN-2013-0497.pdf. (Accessed: 27 December 2016).

Ministry of Economy, Trade, and Industry (METI) Japan. (2013) Japan and Indonesia signed a low carbon growth partnership

for promoting the Joint Crediting Mechanism (Online). Available at: http://www.meti.go.jp/english/press/2013/0830_02.html. (Accessed: 16 August 2017).

Mori, Akihisa, Ekins, Paul and Speck, Stephan. (2013) The Green Fiscal Mechanism and Reform for Low Carbon Development: East Asia and Europe. London: Routledge.

Pasaribu, Rowland B.F. (2012) Perekonomian Hijau di Indonesia (Online). Available at: http://rowland_pasaribu.staff.gunadarma.ac.id/Downloads/files/35481/perekonomian-hijau-indonesia.pdf. (Accessed: 27 September 2016).

Pronto, A. (2015) Understanding the Hard/Soft Distinction in International Law. Vanderbilt Journal of Transnational Law, 48(4), pp. 941–956.

Raustiala, K. (2000) Compliance & Effectiveness in International Regulatory Cooperation. Case Western Reserve Journal of International Law, 32(2), pp. 387-440.

Rocamora, A., et. al. (2016) IGES Climate policy and market mechanism status report 2016. Institute for Global Environmental Strategies, Japan. Available at: https://pub.iges.or.jp/country-handbook-english[NR1] (Accessed: 17 August 2016).

Sofer, Ken. (2016) Climate politics in Japan: The impacts of public opinion, bureaucratic rivalries, and interest groups on Japan?s environmental agenda. Sasakawa USA, Forum Issue No.1. Available at: https://spfusa.org/sasakawa-usa-forum/climate-politics-japan/. (Accessed: 1 June 2016).

Stein, Jana von. (2010) “Interrnational Law: Understanding Compliance and Enforcement”, dalam The International Studies Encyclopedia. Denemark, Robert A. Blackwell Publishing.

Toyota, Tomoyo and Fujikura, Ryo. (2012) Climate Change Mitigation and Development Cooperation. London: Routledge.

Young, Oran R. (1992) The Effectiveness of International Institutions: Hard cases and critical variables. In Rosenau, James N., dan Ernst-Otto Czempiel (ed.), Governance without government: Order and change in world politics. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Zovko, I. (2005) International Law-Making for the Environment?: A Question of effectiveness. In University of Joensuu (Vol. 1).