De-extremization Effort through Political Re-education Camps In China A Case of Uyghur Ethnic Minorities

Main Article Content

Rima Abdul Mujib Nagib
Syaiful Anam

Abstract

The rise of Islamic extremism has prompted global Islamophobia and general hatred for Muslims, which is felt towards both the religion itself and ethno-religious groups such as the one present in China. The spread and acts of Islamic extremism in China might surprise the global community but the concerning level of threat on the issue affected domestic security policies. In explaining the case study, the qualitative research uses a combination of descriptive and explanatory approaches while simultaneously merging the three constructivist theory approaches from notable scholars such as Alexander Wendt, Martha Finnemore and Peter Katzenstein. The research concludes that while there may be variations of methods to combat Islamic extremism, the implementation of political re-education camp for the Uyghurs seems to be the best and most effective method in both de-extremizing the minority group from potential Islamic extremist ideology and enforcing the Chinese government’s interests. Justifications of the choice include the constructivist aspects of the international norms, repetition of historical and existing trajectories as well as the successful rate of cleansing troubled and infected people from negative ideologies based on the Chinese societal norms.

Article Details

How to Cite
Nagib, R. A. M. and Anam, S. (2021) “De-extremization Effort through Political Re-education Camps In China: A Case of Uyghur Ethnic Minorities”, Nation State: Journal of International Studies, 4(1), pp. 51 - 72. doi: 10.24076/nsjis.v4i1.517.
Section
Research Article

References

Albert, E. (2018) Religion in China. Retrieved from: https://www.cfr.org/backgrounder/religion-china (Accessed: March 2, 2020).

Amnesty International. (2013) China’s “Re-education Through Labour” camps: Replacing one system of repression with another? (Online). Retrieved from: Amnesty International website: https://www.amnesty.org/en/latest/news/2013/12/china-s-re-education-through-labour-camps-replacing-one-system-repression-another/ (Accessed: February 15, 2020).

Amnesty International. (2018) China: “Where are they?” Time for answers about mass detentions in the Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region (Online). Retrieved from: https://www.amnesty.org/download/Documents/ASA1791132018ENGLISH.PDF

Asia Pacific Centre for the Responsibility to Protect. (2019) The Persecution of the Uighurs and Potential Crimes Against Humanity in China (Online). Retrieved from: https://r2pasiapacific.org/files/3297/2019-april-uighurs-brief.pdf

Asrudin. (2014) Metodologi Ilmu Hubungan Internasional: Perdebatan Paradigmatik dan Pendekatan Alternatif. In Asrudin, M. J. Suryana, & M. Maliki (Eds.), Metodologi Ilmu Hubungan Internasional: Perdebatan Paradigmatik dan Pendekatan Alternatif (pp. 55–60). Malang: Intrans Publishing.

Basuki, N. (2019) Partai Komunis Cina Hendak Membungkam Islam? (Online). Retrieved from: https://historia.id/agama/articles/partai-komunis-cina-hendak-membungkam-islam-v22R1 (Accessed: March 2, 2020).

BBC News. (2018) China Uighurs: Beijing denies detaining one million (Online). Retrieved from: https://www.bbc.com/news/world-asia-china-45173573 (Accessed: January 21, 2020).

Behravesh, M. (2011a) Constructivism: An Introduction. Retrieved from: https://www.e-ir.info/2011/02/03/constructivism-an-introduction/ (Accessed: December 14, 2019).

Behravesh, M. (2011b) The Thrust of Wendtian Constructivism. Retrieved from: https://www.e-ir.info/2011/03/09/the-thrust-of-wendtian-constructivism/ (Accessed: January 22, 2020).

Berger, T. U. (1996) Norms, Identity, and National Security in Germany and Japan. In P. J. Katzenstein (Ed.), The Culture of National Security: Norms and Identity in World Politics (pp. 1–23). Retrieved from: https://epdf.pub/the-culture-of-national-security.html

Brock University. (2008) Qualitative Research Methods Overview. Retrieved from: http://spartan.ac.brocku.ca/~ekaciak/ABR1/Bradford_x_Qualitative Research Methods Overview.htm (Accessed: December 14, 2019).

Carreras, I. (2018) Social Constructivism. Retrieved from: https://www.coursehero.com/file/34897284/WEEK-7-Constructivism-May-15-7pptx/ (Accessed: January 22, 2020).

Castets, R. (2019) What’s Really Happening to Uighurs in Xinjiang? (Online). Retrieved from: The Nation website: https://www.thenation.com/article/archive/china-xinjiang-uighur-oppression/ (Accessed: Retrieved March 2, 2020).

CBS News. (2019) China bristles at Mike Pompeo’s criticism of Xinjiang Uighur camps as video challenges claim they’re just for “re-education (Online). Retrieved from: https://www.cbsnews.com/news/china-xinjiang-camps-mike-pompeos-criticism-as-video-challenges-claims-uighur-re-education-today-2019-09-23/ (Accessed: January 21, 2020).

Chido, D. (2019) Center for Security Studies Intel Brief: Chinese repression of Uighurs (Online). Retrieved from: https://css.ethz.ch/en/services/digital-library/articles/article.html/89423/pdf

Cho, Y. C. (2009) "Conventional and Critical Constructivist Approaches to National Security: An Analytical Survey". The Korean Journal of International Studies, 77–90, 75–102. https://doi.org/10.14731/kjis.2009.06.49.3.75

Cohen, J. A. (2019) Communist China’s Painful Human Rights Story (Online). Retrieved from: https://www.cfr.org/article/communist-chinas-painful-human-rights-story (Accessed: March 2, 2020).

Congressional-Executive Commission on China. (2018a) Freedom of Religion. Retrieved from: https://www.cecc.gov/sites/chinacommission.house.gov/files/documents/2018AR_Freedom of Religion.pdf

Congressional-Executive Commission on China. (2018b) Xinjiang (Online). Retrieved from: https://www.cecc.gov/sites/chinacommission.house.gov/files/documents/2018AR_Xinjiang_1.pdf (Accessed: December 14, 2019).

Counter Extremism Project. (2019) China: Extremism & Counter-Extremism (Online). Retrieved from: https://www.counterextremism.com/sites/default/files/country_pdf/CN-10162019.pdf

Deutsche Welle. (2018) China rejects accusations of Uighur mass detentions in Xinjiang (Online). Retrieved from: https://www.dw.com/en/china-rejects-accusations-of-uighur-mass-detentions-in-xinjiang/a-46183792 (Accessed: January 21, 2020).

Dikshit, T. (2020) Student group protests China’s Muslim internment (Online). Retrieved from: https://dailytrojan.com/2020/02/20/student-group-protests-chinas-muslim-internment/ (Accessed: March 2, 2020).

Dirks, E. (2018) China is treating muslims like drug addicts. Retrieved from: https://foreignpolicy.com/2018/10/03/china-is-treating-muslims-like-drug-addicts/ (Accessed: March 2, 2020).

Elmer E. Rasmuson Library. (2018) Library Research Process. Retrieved from: https://library.uaf.edu/ls101-research-process (Accessed: December 14, 2019).

Finnemore, M., & Sikkink, K. (1998) "International Norm Dynamics and Political Change". International Organization, 52(4), 888–917. Retrieved from: https://home.gwu.edu/~finnemor/articles/1998_norms_io.pdf

Forsby, A. B., Wivel, A., & Flockhart, T. (2015) “The Logic of Social Identity in IR: China’s Identity and Grand Strategy in the 21 st Century” (pp. 194, 242–248). pp. 194, 242–248. Retrieved from: https://www.diis.dk/files/media/documents/activities/phd_dissertation.pdf

Fullerton, J. (2017) China bans religion for communists. Retrieved from: https://www.thetimes.co.uk/article/china-bans-religion-for-communists-bqd80zhn9 (Accessed: March 2, 2020).

Goh, S. N. (2018) China’s Religious Revival and growing restrictions. Retrieved from: https://www.straitstimes.com/asia/east-asia/chinas-religious-revival-and-growing-restrictions (Accessed: March 2, 2020).

Grieger, G. (2014) At a glance China: Assimilating or radicalising Uighurs? Retrieved from: http://www.europarl.europa.eu/EPRS/EPRS-AaG-538966-China-Assimilating-or-radicalising-Uighurs-FINAL.pdf

Groot, G. (2019) Internment and Indoctrination - Xi’s “New Era” in Xinjiang. In J. Golley, L. Jaivin, P. J. Farrelly, & S. Strange (Eds.), China Story Yearbook: Power (pp. 101–111). https://doi.org/10.22459/CSY.2019

Haglund, Å. (1975) "Maoism - a New Religious formation in the People’s Republic of China". Scripta Instituti Donneriani Aboensis, 7, 49–51. https://doi.org/DOI: https://doi.org/10.30674/scripta.67081

History.com Editors. (2009) Japanese Internment Camps. Retrieved from: https://www.history.com/topics/world-war-ii/japanese-american-relocation (Accessed: March 2, 2020).

History.com Editors. (2018) Gulag (Online). Retrieved from: https://www.history.com/topics/russia/gulag (Accessed: March 2, 2020).

History of China. (n.d.). Retrieved from Cultura China website: https://culturachina.net/en/history-of-china/ (Accessed: February 3, 2020).

Hong Kong police clash with protesters after Uighur rally. (2019) Retrieved from: https://www.theguardian.com/world/2019/dec/22/hong-kong-police-clash-with-protesters-after-uighur-rally (Accessed: March 2, 2020).

Hughes, R. (2018) China Uighurs: All you need to know on Muslim “crackdown.” Retrieved December 14, 2019, from BBC News website: https://www.bbc.com/news/world-asia-china-45474279

Jackson, R., & Sorensen, G. (2006) Social Constructivism. In Introduction to International Relations: Theories and Approaches (Third Edit, pp. 169–171). Retrieved from: https://e-edu.nbu.bg/pluginfile.php/147644/mod_resource/content/0/jackson_sorensen_Intro_in_IR_chap06.pdf

Jhang, I. (2019) Research Guides: Primary Sources: A Research Guide: Primary vs. Secondary (Online). Retrieved from: https://umb.libguides.com/PrimarySources/secondary

Kang, D., & Wang, Y. (2018) China’s Uighurs told to share beds, meals with party members (Online). Retrieved from: https://apnews.com/9ca1c29fc9554c1697a8729bba4dd93b (Accessed: February 23, 2020).

Karmini, N. (2019) Indonesian Muslims Protest China’s Uyghur Abuses (Online). Retrieved from: https://thediplomat.com/2019/12/indonesian-muslims-protest-chinas-uyghur-abuses/ (Accessed: March 2, 2020).

Kirby, S., & Nelson, L. (2014) A Brief History of Xinjiang. In Curriculum Specialists at Primary Source Inc. (Ed.), China Since 1644: A History Through Primary Sources (2nd ed., pp. 2–3). Retrieved from: http://chinasince1644.cheng-tsui.com/sites/chinasince1644.cheng-tsui.com/files/upload/13-B.pdf

Lachman, J. S. (2017) FDR Called Them Concentration Camps: Why Terminology Matters (Online). Retrieved from: https://www.huffpost.com/entry/fdr-called-them-concentration-camps-why-terminology_b_58a7f3b6e4b026a89a7a2b73?guccounter=1 (Accessed: February 3, 2020).

Lamb, O. (2014) Freedom of Religion in China: A Historical Perspective (Online). Retrieved from: https://berkleycenter.georgetown.edu/essays/freedom-of-religion-in-china-a-historical-perspective (Accessed: March 2, 2020).

Lechtenberg, U. (2019) Types of Research Designs - Organizing Academic Research Papers (Online). Retrieved from: https://library.sacredheart.edu/c.php?g=29803&p=185902 (Accessed: December 14, 2019).

McCombes, S. (2020) Descriptive Research Design (Online). Retrieved from: https://www.scribbr.com/methodology/descriptive-research/ (Accessed: January 22, 2020).

Mendoza, M., & Wang, Y. (2018) US reviews report of imports from forced labor in China camp (Online). Retrieved from: https://apnews.com/2afaec4493ab4a049956a93168317645 (Accessed: January 21, 2020).

Merriam-Webster. (n.d.-a) In-group (Online). Retrieved from: https://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/in-group (Accessed: February 3, 2020).

Merriam-Webster. (n.d.-b) Out-group (Online). Retrieved from: https://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/out-group (Accessed: February 3, 2020).

Meyer, P. (2016) China’s De-extremization of Uyghurs in Xinjiang (p. 14). p. 14. Retrieved from: https://na-production.s3.amazonaws.com/documents/Meyer-Uyghurs.pdf

Miles, M. B., & Huberman, A. M. (1994) Qualitative Data Analysis. In R. Holland (Ed.), Qualitative Data Analysis: An Expanded Sourcebook (Second Edi, pp. 10–12). Retrieved from: https://vivauniversity.files.wordpress.com/2013/11/milesandhuberman1994.pdf

Montgomery, A. (n.d.) Qualitative research (Online). Retrieved from: https://library.stanford.edu/guides/qualitative-research (Accessed: December 14, 2019).

National Science Foundation. (n.d.) Analyzing Quantitative Data (Online). Retrieved from: https://www.nsf.gov/pubs/1997/nsf97153/chap_4.htm (Accessed: January 22, 2020).

Nelson, K. (2020) Kids History: The Zhou Dynasty of Ancient China (Online). Retrieved February 3, 2020, from: https://www.ducksters.com/history/china/zhou_dynasty.php

Nuraeni. (2017) Identity in Contemporary ASEAN. Proceedings of the International Conference on Culture and Language in Southeast Asia (ICCLAS 2017), 218–219. https://doi.org/10.2991/icclas-17.2018.54

PressAcademia. (2018) Definition of Case Study (Online). Retrieved from: PressAcademia website: https://www.pressacademia.org/definition-of-case-study/ (Accessed: January 22, 2020).

Rahim, Z. (2019) India builds detention camps for up to 1.9m people ‘stripped of citizenship (Online). Retrieved from: https://www.independent.co.uk/news/world/asia/assam-india-detention-camps-bangladesh-nrc-list-a9099251.html (Accessed: March 2, 2020).

Ritchie, H., Hasell, J., Appel, C., & Roser, M. (2019) Terrorism. Our World in Data. Retrieved from https://ourworldindata.org/terrorism

Rodriguez-Merino, P. (2018) China’s Protracted Securitization of Xinjiang: Origins of a Surveillance State (Online). Retrieved from: https://www.e-ir.info/2018/08/15/chinas-protracted-securitization-of-xinjiang-origins-of-a-surveillance-state/ (Accessed: January 21, 2020).

Rosyidin, M. (2017) "Why Collective Identity Matters: Constructivism and the Absence of ASEAN’s Role in the Rohingya Crisis". Asia-Pacific Social Science Review, 17(1), 57–58. Retrieved from: http://apssr.com/wp-content/uploads/2018/03/4MOHAMAD-053017-1.pdf

Sauro, J. (2015) 5 Types of Qualitative Methods. Retrieved from: https://measuringu.com/qual-methods/ (Accessed: December 14, 2019).

Schumacher-Matos, E., & Grisham, L. (2012) Euphemisms, Concentration Camps And The Japanese Internment (Online). Retrieved from: https://www.npr.org/sections/publiceditor/2012/02/10/146691773/euphemisms-concentration-camps-and-the-japanese-internment (Accessed: February 3, 2020).

Serwer, A. (2019) A Crime by Any Name. Retrieved from: https://www.theatlantic.com/ideas/archive/2019/07/border-facilities/593239/ (Accessed: March 2, 2020).

Tharoor, I. (2009) A Brief History of the Uighurs (Online). Retrieved from: http://content.time.com/time/world/article/0,8599,1909416,00.html (Accessed: February 3, 2020).

The China Story. (2012) Xinjiang (Online). Retreved from: https://www.thechinastory.org/keyword/xinjiang/ (Accessed: February 3, 2020).

The State Council Information Office Of the People’s Republic of China. (2019) Historical Matters Concerning Xinjiang. Beijing: Foreign Languages Press Co. Ltd.

The Uyghur American Association. (n.d.) About Uyghurs (Online). Retrieved from: https://uyghuramerican.org/about-uyghurs

Thierry, F. (1989) Empire and Minority in China. In G. Chaliand (Ed.), Minority Peoples in the Age of Nation States (pp. 76–79). Pluto Press.

Toops, S. (2016) Spatial Results of the 2010 Census in Xinjiang (Online. Retrieved from: https://theasiadialogue.com/2016/03/07/spatial-results-of-the-2010-census-in-xinjiang/

Trédaniel, M., & Lee, P. K. (2018) "Explaining the Chinese framing of the “Terrorist” Violence in Xinjiang: Insights from Securitization Theory". The Journal of Nationalism and Ethnicity, 46(1), 177–195. https://doi.org/10.1080/00905992.2017.1351427.

TRT World. (2017) 13 things to know about religious persecution in China (Online). Retrieved from: https://www.trtworld.com/asia/13-things-to-know-about-religions-persecution-in-china-308451 (Accessed: March 2, 2020).

Truong, Q. (n.d.) Vietnamese Re-Education Camps: A Brief History (Online). Retrieved from: https://www.choices.edu/curriculum-catalog/vietnamese-re-education-camps-brief-history/ (Accessed: March 2, 2020).

Uyghur Human Rights Project. (2014) China attempts to criminalize every aspect of Uyghur religious belief and practice (Online). Retrieved from: https://uhrp.org/press-release/briefing-china-attempts-criminalize-every-aspect-uyghur-religious-belief-and-practice (Accessed: December 14, 2019).

Uyghur Human Rights Project. (2018a) China’s Repression and Internment of Uyghurs: U.S. Policy Responses (Online). Retrieved from: https://docs.house.gov/meetings/FA/FA05/20180926/108718/HHRG-115-FA05-Wstate-TurkelN-20180926.pdf

Uyghur Human Rights Project. (2018b) The Mass Internment of Uyghurs. Retrieved from: http://turkistantimes.com/uploads/2018-08/MassDetention_of_Uyghurs.pdf

Wang, Y. (2019) China claims everyone in Xinjiang camps has ‘graduated (Online). Retrieved from: https://apnews.com/27f00e4feaa2755f25ab514cecda7add (Accessed: March 2, 2020).

Wong, M. (2018) “Eradicating Ideological Viruses” (S. Richardson, Ed.). Retrieved from: https://www.hrw.org/report/2018/09/09/eradicating-ideological-viruses/chinas-campaign-repression-against-xinjiangs

World Uyghur Congress. (2018) Parallel Submission to the Committee on the Elimination of Racial Discrimination (CERD) for the People’s Republic of China (PRC) (Online). Retrieved from: https://tbinternet.ohchr.org/Treaties/CERD/SharedDocuments/CHN/INT_CERD_NGO_CHN_31745_E.pdf

Xinhua Net. (2019) U.S. bill on Xinjiang draws condemnation from various countries - Xinhua (Online). Retrieved from: http://www.xinhuanet.com/english/2019-12/08/c_138615393.htm (Accessed: January 21, 2020).

Xinhua News Agency. (2007) China says social care helps lower crime rate among ex-convicts (Online). Retrieved from: http://en.people.cn/200701/17/eng20070117_341844.html (Accessed: February 12, 2020).

Yousaf, M. (2019) Explanatory Research - Types of Research (Online). Retrieved from: https://scholarshipfellow.com/explanatory-research-definition-types-comparison-advantages-disadvantages/ (Accessed: January 22, 2020).

Zanardi, C. (2019) The Changing Security Dimension of China’s Relations with Xinjiang (Online). Retrieved from: https://www.e-ir.info/2019/03/31/the-changing-security-dimension-of-chinas-relations-with-xinjiang/ (Accessed: February 15, 2020).

Zenz, A. (2018) China’s Securitization Drive in Tibet and Xinjiang – Asia Dialogue (Online). Retrieved from: https://theasiadialogue.com/2018/02/14/chinas-securitization-drive-in-tibet-and-xinjiang/ (Accessed: January 21, 2020).

Zenz, A. (2019a) "Beyond the Camps: Beijing’s Grand Scheme of Forced Labor, Poverty Alleviation and Social Control in Xinjiang". SocArXiv, 4. https://doi.org/10.31235/OSF.IO/8TSK2

Zenz, A. (2019b) "Thoroughly reforming them towards a healthy heart attitude’: China’s political re-education campaign in Xinjiang". Central Asian Survey, 38(1), 102–128. https://doi.org/10.1080/02634937.2018.1507997

Zhang, Z. (2019) Commentary: Bad intentions, not low IQ, prompt US politicians to believe lie on Xinjiang (Online). Retrieved from: https://www.chinadaily.com.cn/a/201912/28/WS5e06ab3ba310cf3e35581323.html (Accessed: January 21, 2020).